How the Greek Culture Changed Over Time

The ancient Greek civilization had a tremendous impact on the modern Western world in terms of philosophy, democracy, art, and literature. From the Mycenaean civilization in the second millennium BCE to the end of the Hellenistic period in 31 BCE, the Greek culture underwent immense transformations.

Mycenaean Period: 1600 BCE-1100 BCE

The Mycenaean civilization is considered as the earliest form of Greek culture. The Mycenaeans were heavily influenced by the Minoans of Crete and developed an advanced civilization with fortified palaces, elaborate tombs, and rich artistic tradition. They were also skilled in trade and established a thriving maritime culture in the eastern Mediterranean.

Dark Ages: 1100 BCE-800 BCE

After the collapse of the Mycenaean civilization around 1100 BCE, Greece entered a period of decline known as the Dark Ages. The population declined, and the Greeks lost the art of writing, leaving no written documents from this time period. The Dark Ages were characterized by poverty, disorder, and isolation.

Archaic Period: 800 BCE- 480 BCE

The Archaic period saw the rebirth of the Greek culture. The Greeks developed their own form of writing, known as the Greek alphabet, which helped them record their history and literature. The Greeks developed their own unique style of art and architecture, including the famous columns and pediments in their buildings.

The Greeks also developed their own religion, which was characterized by the worship of many gods and goddesses, each representing a different aspect of life. This period also marked the rise of the Greek city-states and the institution of democracy, with Athens being the most famous democratic city.

Classical Period: 480 BCE-323 BCE

The Classical period is considered the zenith of Greek culture, with the flourishing of literature, philosophy, art, and science. The Greeks produced some of the greatest philosophers of all times, including Socrates, Plato, and Aristotle. They also produced great dramatists like Aeschylus, Sophocles, and Euripides, whose plays are still performed today.

Greek art reached its pinnacle with the creation of masterpieces like the Parthenon and the statue of Zeus in Olympia. This period also witnessed the expansion of the Greek Empire under the great generals like Alexander the Great, who spread Greek culture to Asia and Egypt.

Hellenistic Period: 323 BCE-31 BCE

The Hellenistic period marked the end of the Greek Empire with the conquest of Alexander the Great. The Greek culture started to mix with other cultures, especially the Persian and Egyptian culture, to create a new hybrid culture known as Hellenistic.

The Greeks produced great philosophers like Epicurus and Zeno, and their art and literature continued to flourish. The Hellenistic period also marked the end of the Greek city-states, with the establishment of larger kingdoms, and the rise of the Roman Empire.


In conclusion, the Greek culture underwent tremendous transformations, from the Mycenaean civilization to the Hellenistic period. The Greeks developed their own unique style of art, architecture, and philosophy, which had a profound impact on the Western world. Despite its decline, the legacy of the Greek culture lives on, inspiring new generations to explore the beauty and complexity of the human experience.

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